Wednesday, May 30, 2007

Doing it for the kids

Here's a short and sweet article that I missed last week from the Canberra Times. Professor Ian Falconer is the Chair of the expert panel established to oversee the development of Canberra's Water2water proposal.

Water quality expert vows safety first for children's sake
By The Canberra Times
21 May 2007
Canberra Times

The head of an expert panel appointed by the ACT Government to look at the health impacts of Actew's controversial plan to recycle Canberra's waste water says he won't approve any proposal unless ''absolutely convinced it's safe''.

Water quality consultant Emeritus Professor Ian Falconer also said despite being appointed by the Government, he would not be a cheer squad for it or for Actew's proposals. ''I don't have a record for being a cheer squad, particularly in respect for the water industry. Almost everything I've done has caused some anxiety and cost [for the industry],'' he said.

Professor Falconer said the four-member panel was ''quite some distance'' from making any recommendations to Chief Minister Jon Stanhope on Actew's proposals, mainly because Actew had yet to decide which water purification system was the most appropriate.

The expert panel was due to issue this week an issues paper that canvassed current water treatment systems and future waste water recycling options.

Professor Falconer said whatever system Actew chose, it had to be well-researched, well-funded and well-monitored. ''It's got to be,'' he said. ''Our panel is not going to sign off on anything unless we're absolutely convinced it's safe. ''To start with, three members of the panel live here. We've got children here, we've got grandchildren here. There's no way we're going to advise anything that is harmful to the Canberra population.''

Actew announced earlier this year that in the face of record low inflows into the ACT's reservoirs, it was looking at purifying Canberra's waste water and adding it to the Cotter reservoir to help guarantee supply.

Professor Falconer said he understood the
anxiety surrounding using recycled waste water in Canberra. He did not fundamentally disagree with the concerns of the Canberra Hospital's director of infectious diseases and microbiology, Peter Collignon, who has said treated human waste should never be added to Canberra's drinking water and has expressed doubt that filtration processes could remove all of the drugs that remained in urine and faeces. But Professor Falconer said all water sources had purity and quality concerns.

''What one's got to realise is that all the water that's used in drinking water treatment has got disease organisms in it,'' he said. ''We've got septic tank overflow in Googong Dam, we've got stormwater run-off in the Murrumbidgee coming from Tuggeranong, we've got dead possums and kangaroos in the Cotter. ''Wherever you draw your raw water, it's got infectious disease organisms in it. What you have to do is make sure your water treatment is capable of handling it effectively. And obviously the higher the potential disease load from your source water, the better your treatment's got to be to cope with it.''

Saturday, May 26, 2007

Canberra: Environmental issues of IPR

Two important reports were released regarding the preliminary assessment of the proposed indirect potable water recycling scheme for Canberra yesterday.

The Health and Public Safety report was the subject of yesterday’s blog post.

The second report is a “Preliminary Investigation of Environmental Issues” associated with the recycling scheme and the accompanying expansion of the Cotter Reservoir. This report was prepared by the eWater CRC.

The report is subtitled “Stage 1: Issues Discussion Paper”, which leads me to presume that there is a more detailed analysis to come. However, this general discussion provides a succinct summary of the environmental issues that are typically associated with IPR schemes.

In my opinion, the most significant environmental issues are consistently (in order of decreasing significance):

1. The impact on downstream river flow regimes
2. Sustainable management of concentrated waste streams
3. Energy intensiveness and associated greenhouse gas emissions.

I am pleased to see that the report has identified each of these as important issues requiring closer scrutiny. The executive summary is provided below. You can download the full report from here.

1 Executive Summary

This Discussion paper is the first of two reports from eWater CRC, assessing and reporting on potential issues that ACTEW's proposed Water2WATER project poses for the environment and ecology of the lower Cotter catchment and the Murrumbidgee River. Human health issues are being dealt with separately by an Expert Health Panel.

Conceptual information about two options for recycling Canberra water has been provided by ACTEW. With both options (A and B), treated wastewater derived from tertiary treatment of sewage will progress from the existing Lower Molonglo Water Quality Control Centre (LMWQCC) to a proposed new on-site facility, for further treatment. The ‘advanced’ treated water will then be recycled into the lower Cotter catchment where it will enter the Cotter Reservoir, via a constructed wetland and probably a local stream.

Two other outputs of the new plant will be liquid and solid wastes, depending on the treatment option the plant uses. These wastes will either re-enter the LMWQCC with the incoming raw sewage, or, in the case of the reverse osmosis plant wastewater (‘brine’) from Option A, be piped to evaporation ponds north of Uriarra, for ultimate disposal elsewhere.

ACTEW also proposes also to enlarge the capacity of Cotter Reservoir from 4 GL to 78 GL (GL stands for gigalitre, 1 thousand million litres) to hold the treated water along with other catchment in-flows. Recycling of 25 ML each day is expected initially, rising to 50 ML per day once the new dam wall has been constructed (ML stands for megalitre, 1 million litres).

eWater notes that the technical information so far available on the treatment options is insufficient to carry out a detailed evaluation or proper environmental risk assessment. Therefore, this report makes only preliminary comments on the plant performance and related environmental issues. More detailed analyses will be carried out for our second stage report.

1.1 Environmental issues identified

1.1.1 New treatment plant and water quality

Our preliminary evaluation of the international literature indicates that a well designed and well operating ‘Option A' type system (micro/ultrafiltration + reverse osmosis + UV/peroxide oxidation) has the potential to remove all viral and bacterial contaminants and organic pollutants, and to reduce salts, nutrients and heavy metals to concentrations similar to, or lower than, that found in natural catchment run-off — this being the appropriate environmental benchmark for our analysis. Notwithstanding, one potential environmental issue noted is the comparatively weaker removal of the nutrient nitrate by reverse osmosis. This could, subject to other environmental factors, increase the risk of algal blooms and uncontrolled aquatic plant growth in Cotter Reservoir.

No treatment system anywhere in the world can be guaranteed to be absolutely failsafe 100% of the time. Consequently, equally important to the treatment system chosen must be the provisions made for detecting failure and ensuring that there is no break-through or leakage of incompletely treated water or wastes. The environmental concerns relating to system failure include:

• infection of fish and other biota by viral and other pathogens — something that could occur during even a single, short failure event;
• accidental land and water contamination because of pipe rupture — especially the treated water pipe crossing over or under the Murrumbidgee River;
• contamination of local land, streams and groundwaters due to constructed wetland ‘overflow’ or leakage; and
• shut-down of flow at critical ecological times — especially for wetlands and stream ecosystems that become established under an artificial flow regime.

Advanced water treatment is an energy-intensive process, especially where significant water pumping is required (as here). Preliminary estimates of the power requirements for the new treatment process are about 6000 kW (kilowatts). Assuming operations 24 hours a day, 365 days per year, this translates to an estimated greenhouse gas emission rate of about 57,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year from plant operations.

The ‘Option B’ treatment train (using ozone–biologically activated carbon instead of reverse osmosis) would use a little less energy than Option A. However, there appear to be few other water treatment and environmental advantages of Option B over Option A.

To the extent of any new works required at the LMWQCC site, there are possible impacts on the threatened Pink-tailed Worm Lizard. Infrastructure associated with the proposal must ensure that connectivity is maintained between populations of this species in the immediate vicinity.

1.1.2 Waste management

In any treatment process, one of the biggest environmental risks lies with the handling and disposal of the concentrated waste stream. Issues that need to be further addressed are:
o contamination of birds and animals that will be attracted to the ‘brine’ ponds,
o groundwater contamination by the wastes,
o brine pond failure and run-off to adjacent streams,
o waste pipe eruption and discharge,
o waste management during prolonged wet periods,
o wind dispersal of dried waste accumulated on site,
o vehicular accident during transport of dried waste.

1.1.3 Water transfers to Cotter catchment

The proposed water-treatment wetlands will need to be sited where the soils, slope and drainage characteristics are capable of dealing with an inflow of 25–50 ML per day. Evaporation and loss through seepage need to be small to maximise the extra water the project aims to make available. The wetlands may be contaminated by pests carried on the wind or by birds, and bird excreta may also reduce water quality.

Water from the wetland is likely to be discharged into a nearby stream before reaching Cotter Reservoir. Subject to further analysis, it is reasonable to expect if water is discharged at rates approaching the proposed 25–50 ML/day that major ecological impacts on local streams will occur.

There may be ways to mitigate such impacts to some extent, for example through the use of more than one stream. However, consideration should be given to direct piping and discharge of treated water to the Cotter Reservoir as a less environmentally impacting option.

1.1.4 Enlargement of the Cotter Reservoir

Greatly enlarging the volume of the reservoir may stimulate:
• expansion of populations of alien fish species (Goldfish, trout, Gambusia, Oriental Weatherloach);
• predation on threatened fish species by trout and waterbirds such as cormorants;
• loss of fringing reed-beds which offer cover to Macquarie Perch in the present reservoir and upstream of it, at least until new reed-beds establish in some years time;
• potential loss of spawning habitat for Macquarie Perch upstream of the present reservoir, unless the new water level is kept downstream of natural rock barriers in the river;
• deposition of sediment at the narrow upstream end of the new reservoir, which may block the way for fish to swim out of the reservoir, and possibly smother at least some of the existing habitat on the riverbed for Two-spined Blackfish;
• a larger total habitat for deep-water birds, but temporary loss of habitat for reed-dwelling species such as warblers and grebes until the reeds re-establish; and probable change in amount of shallow-water foraging habitat and adjacent riparian and woodland habitat for other bird species;
• loss of some frog habitat, but for species that are common in this region;
• change in food availability for Platypus;
• low-temperature releases of water through the wall into the river below.

Most, if not all, of these issues are manageable through sound dam planning and design, and through appropriate adaptive management practices for dam operations.

1.1.5 Effects on flows in downstream rivers

A larger Cotter Reservoir will trap much greater volumes of the peak flood flows than the present Cotter dam wall can retain, which could have ecological consequences downstream in the Cotter River. Also, water that is now discharged into the Murrumbidgee River will be diverted to the new treatment plant and then into the Cotter catchment. In summer this may be a good thing, because the existing discharge from the LMWQCC causes the river to be unnaturally high at present. For the rest of the year, the reduced flow may hinder fish travel.

1.1.6 Construction of dam wall, pipelines and plants

Environmental issues that will need to be addressed during the treatment plant, pipeline and dam construction phase include:
• mobilising of sediment into the Cotter River and the Murrumbidgee River, damaging freshwater communities in the area by smothering habitats;
• spills of fuel and other materials that would contaminate land and water;
• drawdown of the Cotter Reservoir, affecting plants and animals in the existing reservoir;
• access through the existing or new dam wall, allowing pest fish to move into the Cotter River from the Murrumbidgee River;
• damage to populations of the Pink-tailed Worm Lizard that may exist near the proposed new treatment plant or pipelines; this species is listed in both Commonwealth and ACT environment protection legislation.

Also, it may take several years to fill the much-enlarged reservoir, causing the flow regime in the Cotter River to be additionally impacted for that time, to the likely detriment of aquatic biota that need seasonally variable flows.

1.1.7 Other issues

There is likely to be a requirement for development referral under the provisions of the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999). One lizard and two of the fish species present in the Cotter are listed as nationally threatened (Macquarie Perch and Trout Cod), and so the provisions of the EPBC Act are expected to apply.

All the issues listed above, as well as potentially beneficial opportunities presented by the Water2WATER proposal, will be considered in more detail in eWater CRC's stage 2 evaluation.

Friday, May 25, 2007

Canberra: ‘Health and Public Safety in Water Purification’ report

We have been discussing Canberra’s Water2Water proposal to develop an indirect potable water recycling scheme in some detail on this blog recently.

The proposal’s appointed Expert Panel on Health released their Issues Paper 'Health and Public Safety in Water Purification' today.

I recommend downloading a copy of the report from the above link. However, hopefully I wont find myself in any trouble over copyright for posting the executive summary below.

I’d be keen to discuss the issues addressed.

Executive Summary

This issues paper has been prepared by the Expert Panel on Health (EPoH) to assist the community in understanding the nature of ACTEW’s Water2WATER proposal for water purification from the Lower Molonglo Water Quality Control centre (LMWQCC), to supplement Canberra’s drinking water supply.

It considers the present drinking water quality and treatment in Canberra and the safety issues that arise from wastewater purification for supplementing existing drinking water sources. It is not the role of this panel to consider water resource or environmental issues.

Canberra has a water reticulation system supplied with treated drinking water by two water treatment plants (WTPs), the older Googong plant and the new Mt Stromlo plant. Both use well tried and validated treatments to provide water that meets the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (NHMRC, 2004). Both plants have enhanced capacity to treat variable quality raw water by dissolved air flotation (DAF). The Googong plant now also has capacity for powdered activated carbon treatment, and the Mt Stromlo water treatment plant is shortly to be further developed by ultraviolet light disinfection.

The quality of the discharge from the LMWQCC into the river system is monitored as a requirement of its authorisation from the ACT Environment Protection Agency. The water currently is substantially better than the required quality. However the qualities that are measured are basic, and will need to be vastly expanded to include a wider range of health-related parameters if Water2WATER is to proceed. These monitoring measures will need to include a range of pathogens and endocrine disruptors together with other components of discharge waters.

The Panel has received details of three proposed treatment train options for water purification from ACTEW. These options are each in use overseas and produce purified water that complies with the relevant regulations for drinking water quality.

The suggested mechanism for transferring the purified water into the Cotter reservoir is to allow it to flow down an existing creek, which may incorporate a wetland. At present the Cotter reservoir has limited capacity, which would only provide a short residence time for the water. The multiple barrier approach to water safety would be enhanced by an enlarged Cotter reservoir, with higher water residence time. This provides a safety element in the treatment sequence and an opportunity for natural pathogen reduction.

The quality of the purified water from the proposed plant is crucial to the health and safety of the community, and must not be compromised. To ensure this the Panel expects ACTEW to have Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) accreditation for both the new water purification plant and for the existing LMWQCC. A extensive sampling and monitoring program will be required, with the purified water to meet the Guideline Values for the existing Australian Drinking Water Guidelines and also the requirements of the recycling water guidelines for potable reuse, which are under development. The quality of purified water would be subject to ACT Health regulatory audits, with an external audit carried out at specified intervals.

The studies of health risks from purified water reuse overseas have been few, due to recent adoption of the technology. A review of the available material concluded that no clear deleterious health risks have been observed.

The community views on the Water2WATER proposal have received considerable public and media interest and a number of health issues have been raised. These include water security and the need for water, types of contaminants in recycled water, health effects of contaminants, efficacy of water purification technologies, the treatment train and its use elsewhere, risks for people with special health needs, adequacy of monitoring and the regulatory framework.

The panel has released two communiqu├ęs reporting on its meetings, and has encouraged contact through its website. The views expressed by the public will be considered in preparation of the final report, due at the end of June.

Thursday, May 24, 2007

A Risky Conversation: Collignon & Khan.

I awoke this morning to find another response from Prof Peter Collignon in my inbox. I think it provides a very good opportunity for us to start discussing the issue of ‘risk’ in a little more detail. That’s where Peter started and I have tried to take it a little further in my ‘right of reply’ at the bottom of this post. I hope readers will find it interesting and feel encouraged to contribute to this public conversation. All points of view are welcome!

I’m also glad to post some of the detail on Peter’s thoughts about the specific IPR proposal for Canberra and his evaluation of its need. It would be great to receive some feedback from Actew on this...

From Prof Peter Collignon
Infectious Diseases Physician and Microbiologist
Director Infectious Diseases Unit and Microbiology Department, The Canberra Hospital. Professor, School of Clinical Medicine, Australian National University.

Dear Stuart you wrote,

"This is Prof. Collignon’s interpretation of the ‘risk matrix’ provided in the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (and in many other risk-based guidelines). The risk matrix requires risk assessors to consider the combined implications of the ‘likelihood’ and the ‘consequences’ of a potential hazardous event. Doing so provides a ‘risk rating’ of low, medium, high, etc..

One disadvantage of the risk matrix is that it is quite qualitative in the nature of the ratings that it provides and thus very open to interpretation or opinion. However, I feel that Prof. Collignon’s use of the risk matrix is overly simplistic and thus incorrect. His simplistic approach would be expected to deliver a risk rating of “high” or “very high” for any water source whatsoever. In other words, while the likelihood of something going wrong is very low, the consequences are potentially devastating. But this is not an appropriate use of the matrix (which is fortunate or cities may have to cease delivering potable water!).

The risk matrix should be used to evaluate risks posed by the occurrence of specific “hazardous events”. A hazardous event may be something such as a high rainfall period, a failure of reverse osmosis pump, a loss of electricity to the treatment plant, a cross-connection between potable and non-potable water supplies, etc. Only once such an event is identified can the risk matrix be used to evaluate it. Risks associated with hazardous events that are not assessed as ‘low’, require the institution of additional barriers or management practices until a ‘low’ risk can be determined. The risk matrix is a planning tool intended to ensure that planners and scheme operators identify the sources of risk in their systems and manage them effectively with multiple barriers."

Stuart how you would define the level of risk of recycling water from sewage into potable water supplies if you believe my interpretation of the risk as “high” is not correct? If we just take one part of a system (eg reverse osmosis as you suggest) then surely if that goes wrong for some reason ( a membrane rupture that is undetected for a period of time), then at least for faecal viruses the consequence could be potentially be considerable for a very large number of people would they not? Does that not make this "high" risk? Yes there are steps that can be taken after this such as a UV step after the RO, but if large numbers of viruses are present can we be sure that UV will cope? In any case does that still not make the use of RO as “high” risk? It is just then as you say, the planners and scheme operators after identifying the sources of risk in their systems need to be able to manage them effectively with multiple barriers.

I attach the tables from the Australian water guidelines which I hope you might post along with these comments. I would be interested to see what others think and how they would rank the "risk" in Canberra of the current “water2water” recycling proposal.

The trouble for the Canberra proposal is that there is not good data available from elsewhere on what is proposed for Canberra to make a quantitative risk assessment as no similar proposal has been used anywhere else. Therefore it is likely that only a qualitative risk assessment can be done. I still think it is "high" risk. This however does not mean we should never take a "high" risk, just we need to be sure that it is necessary to take this risk and that there are not other reasonable alternatives available. The drinking water guidelines are available from here.

For the benefit of your readers, I will outline what I understand is the Canberra sewage recycling proposal. It is going to start with recycling 9 GL per year of water from sewage and then go to 20 GL relatively quickly (I presume within a few years). Water will be pumped from the Molonglo sewage outflow after RO treatment etc to new artificial terraced wetlands in the upper reaches of the end of the valley where the creeks/streams that eventually enter the Cotter Dam (the Cotter Dam is lowest of the three Dams on the Cotter river). The Cotter dam is only very small at 3.8 GL. It also has to be kept at about 90% full at all times so that the breeding ground of threatened fish is not prejudiced. This has meant however that even in droughts after rainfall this Dam frequently overflows. There are plans to also build a bigger Cotter Dam (to 80 GL and which I think is a good idea). However this has still not been approved and completion will be quite a number of years after the recycling plant will go into operation.

I have been told that it will only be about 2 or 3 days before the recycled water pumped into the artificial terraced wetlands enters the Dam water. Because water in the dam runs the risk of overflowing, my understanding is that water will need to be pumped out almost as fast as it enters the reservoir. This means it will be pumped up to the treatment works at Stromlo and then put directly into the reticulated water system of Canberra. What is not used along the way in the city while it traverses the reticulated water system will be pumped into the Googong dam (which has over 100 Gl capacity but is on the other side of the city). However I presume this will mean, given that Canberra uses currently about 50 Gl of water per year, that if 20 Gl of water is recycled, then about 40% of our reticulated water may be recycled water. One can argue that we might access other sources of water from other Dams and this percentage will be lower, but if we do that why then produce such energy expensive recycled water? While the Cotter dam is so small, unless the added water is pumped out it will likely just overflow over the top of the dam and be lost from the catchment.

I would also appreciate people’s view on how this proposal should be defined. This is currently being called an “Indirect” potable water usage. However if it is really only takes 2 or 3 days before this water hits the small Cotter dam and then is also likely to be relatively quickly pumped into the reticulated water system, is this not really a “direct” potable use? (if not, does it not miss out on that definition by just a couple of days).

This rapid return of this recycled water to our reservoir and then into our reticulated water system seems to me to be taking short-cuts with a lot of normal biological and natural safety barriers that are usually in place, namely major dilution factors and long retention times in shallow wetlands, aquifers or dams.

As a last note, with level 3 water restriction in Canberra, we use 50 Gl or less from our dams per year for domestic/industrial consumption. In every one of the recent drought years, except for 2006, we have had much larger inflows than 50 GL into our dams (in 2005 it was over 100 GL’s). Indeed at the beginning of 2006 our dams’ levels were close to 70% despite the drought. In Canberra therefore, I can't see why we need to recycling of water from sewage into our drinking water, especially given the compromises to natural safety barriers that will occur if it is done before an enlarged Cotter Dam is built. Stuart I don’t know if you can attach graphs but this I think shows our situation.


Stuart’s Response:

The risk matrix is a useful tool to assist in assessing the risks associated with specific, well defined ‘hazardous events’. The risks arising from such ‘hazardous events’ are described in terms of their ‘likelihood’ and ‘consequences’ in order to assign a ‘risk rating’ from ‘low’ to ‘very high’.

As mentioned in the previous post, a major limitation of the risk matrix is its rather qualitative nature and thus the fact that interpretations may be left largely open to opinion or even ‘gut feeling’. However, I find that it is useful to try to use quantitative (or at least semi-quantitative) assessments as much as possible. This can be a little cumbersome with the risk matrix, but there are a number of workable approaches.

Table A4 above gives ‘qualitative measures of likelihood’. The recent National Guidelines for Water Recycling (Phase 1) take this a step further by providing some semi-quantitative descriptions for assigning likelihood. These involve describing expected frequency of occurrence by the following descriptors. Rare: “May occur only in exceptional circumstances. May occur once in 100 years”, Unlikely: “Could occur within 20 years or in unusual circumstances”, Possible: “Might occur or should be expected to occur within a 5- to 10-year period”, Likely: “Will probably occur within a 1- to 5-year period”, Almost certain: “Is expected to occur with a probability of multiple occurrences within a year”. With such an approach, it is then possible to examine performance histories of other plants using similar technologies (or other predictive means) to make a reasonable judgement of the frequency (and thus likelihood) of specific hazardous events occurring.

Assessing the ‘consequences’ of a hazardous event can be undertaken in a similarly quantitative manner. Considering Peter’s example of viruses, we can consider the ‘consequences’ of a hazardous event in terms of the impact it has on the number of infections. For a given virus, this is directly related to the level of human exposure to the virus. So a useful approach is to assess the consequences of a hazardous event in terms of its impact on exposure.

To quantify the impact of a hazardous event on exposure, we first need to have a quantitative description of ‘normal’ exposure. This will be defined in terms of virus concentrations (and variability) in the source water and how well it is removed at each of numerous subsequent barriers (eg. microfiltration, reverse osmosis, advanced oxidation, environmental residence, drinking water flocculation, chlorination). Again, these removals (or ‘decimal reductions’ or ‘log reductions’) can be informed by experience with existing plants using the same or comparable technologies. By considering a large number of hazardous event scenarios, we can examine the impact that they can be expected to have on the removal of the virus, and thus on human exposure to it.

All significant international health organisations (eg the WHO), accept some concept of ‘tolerable risk’. For viruses, this is typically defined in terms of infection likelihood (or more recently, a concept called DALYs). Advanced water recycling schemes will be designed to achieve sufficient removal of viruses, such that accepted infection likelihoods will not be exceeded. The multiple barrier approach ensures that it must be achieved with significant safety margins of numerous orders of magnitude.

Consideration of a hazardous event by its impact on human exposure and thus by impact on infection likelihood, now allows us make a reasonable quantitative assessment of risk.

Peter has asked me “Stuart how you would define the level of risk of recycling water from sewage into potable water supplies if you believe my interpretation of the risk as “high” is not correct?”. However, it was not his assessment of “high” that I necessarily disagreed with. I was really commenting on the simplistic reasoning that was used to arrive at it. I hope that after the above very brief introduction to the concept of quantitative risk assessment, readers will appreciate that I can not provide a simple answer to how I would rate the risks associated with a particular IPR scheme without access to significant plant design information. Even once that is available, it is a formidable task to systematically consider possible hazardous events and assess them in terms of their likelihood and consequences.

Nonetheless, I will go as far as to say that it is not necessarily the case that a ruptured RO membrane presents a significant risk. Even if we ignore the ‘likelihood’ for a moment and just consider ‘consequences’, as we have described, in terms of impact on human exposure. A typical RO plant will not have just one RO membrane module, but hundreds of them installed in parallel (and even in series in some cases). If one RO membrane out of 100 has a complete rupture, that would represent a 1% increase in exposure. A complete rupture would be instantly noticed by a dramatic loss of pressure, so a much smaller fraction of this 1% is actually more realistic. This may mean that the schemes overall performance for reducing virus concentrations may be reduced from 10 log units to 9.9 log units [Note: this calculation is incorrect. See comments below]. For a safely designed scheme, this would result in an elevated level of exposure, but one that was still well within tolerable risk levels.

The issue of ‘indirect potable recycling’ and ‘direct potable recycling’ is one that we have dealt with a few times on this blog (eg. see the long discussion between ‘Mark’ and myself here). I see that it really is a sticking point for many people!

If you want to go by the accepted definitions, the scheme proposed for Canberra is an indirect potable recycling scheme. This is because the water is not plumbed directly from the advanced water treatment plant to the distribution system. Instead, it discharges to a reservoir and then will be treated (with other source water in the reservoir) at a drinking water treatment plant. Only after the drinking water treatment plant will it be plumbed to the distribution system.

However, before we go down that path again, I wish to state that simply being named or defined as an ‘indirect potable recycling scheme’ doesn’t automatically make a scheme safe (a rose by any other name…). In order to be judged as ‘safe’ it is necessarily for each scheme to be carefully considered in terms of its actual design attributes…not just its name.

Monday, May 21, 2007

Prof Collignon on Recycling in Singapore

Prof Peter Collignon has provided us with some further commentary on the issue of indirect potable water recycling, particularly as it relates to a current proposal in Canberra. Once again there are a couple of direct questions posed by Prof Collignon. I have briefly responded to these by private email, but will also post a response here (now I’m relegated to the comments section of the blog!).

As always, I’d be keen to also receive your comments...

Date: Mon, 21 May 2007
From: "Collignon, Peter"
To: "Stuart Khan"
Subject: FW: Singapore drinking water contains very little recycled water from sewage

Dear Stuart,

You might be interested in this [email to members of the ACT Legislative Assembly] for your website (including the next few paragraphs). I would also value your opinion.

My view is that what Singapore is doing with recycled water seems eminently sensible (other than their token addition of 1% to their potable water - not sure why they even do that as 1 % is so small). My view remains that recycling water into drinking water should be a last option to overcome water shortages, not a first option as is the case with the Canberra proposal. In Singapore they seem to have taken a less risky approach. They take their high quality recycled water and use it for industry. This means that less water is thus taken form their potable supplies (ie they have substituted this recycled water for what would otherwise have been used from their drinking water sources). In Brisbane that would also make sense if the proposed recycled water was used for say their power stations and industry (and maybe irrigation) using separate pipelines (as is the case in Singapore). In Canberra I think we should use recycle water from sewage for instance to keep Lake Burley Griffin filled and for irrigation purpose eg keeping parliament house surrounds green, instead of using potable water for these purposes which is currently the case.

My basic presumption remains that when we recycle water (particularly from sewage ) because we can never have a system that will not have a risk of failing at some time, that we should use this recycled water for purposes where the health risk is lower if something should go wrong (eg industry, irrigation etc). We should not put it into drinking water unless there are no other reasonable options. Recycling water from sewage into drinking water is defined as a "high" or "very high" risk by the Australian drinking water guidelines (the chance that that the process will go wrong may be very low but because the consequences are very significant to large populations it become "high" risk).

Also I can't find any cities that I think are the equivalent of Canberra re the proposals here. Do you know of any good epidemiological studies that have data on the safety issue of recycled water from sewage in reasonable populations?

Peter Collignon
Infectious Diseases Physician and Microbiologist
Director Infectious Diseases Unit and Microbiology Department, The Canberra Hospital.
Professor, School of Clinical Medicine, Australian National University.

-----Original Message-----
From: Collignon
Sent: Thursday, 17 May 2007 10:21 PM
To: [members of the ACT Legislative Assembly]
Subject: Singapore drinking water contains very little recycled water from sewage

Dear Members of the Legislative Assembly,

I think that a few of you were surprised (and probably a bit sceptical) when I sent around a previous email stating that water from sewage was not recycled into the drinking water of Singapore to any significant extent. The common perception here in Australia seems to be that large amounts of water recycled from sewage are consumed in Singapore.

Since I sent my previous email I understand many of you have received emails, personal contacts or had material sent to you suggesting what I sent to you before and stated previously was incorrect on the Singapore water situation.

Below and attached are a number of different sources that allows you to independently check on the accuracy of my statements.

Hardly any (1% or likely less) of potable water in Singapore comes from recycled sewage (it seems to be mainly used by industry and is delivered by separate pipelines to drinking water and at a lower price). Thus looking at Singapore to establish any adverse health effects from this process in their population will be impossible as they hardly drink any of this type of recycled water.

Currently only 1% of Singapore potable water is recycled.

My sources for this are three different ones plus the Singapore water website (accessed today)

How will NEWater be used?

A. We will continue to use NEWater for direct non-potable purpose by industries, commercial buildings, etc. As for Indirect Potable Use (IPU), 3 million gallons a day of NEWater, about 1% of the total volume of water consumed daily, has been blended with raw water in our reservoirs. The amount will be increased progressively to reach about 2.5% of the total volume of water-consumed daily by 2011.

See also the attachments.

The first is an 2005 application form for NEWater that clearly shows there are two different pipelines and recycled water is kept separated from potable water (at least in 2005 it had said it is NOT for potable use).

"As NEWater is for non-potable use, customers will have to provide separate pipework for potable and non-potable water supply within their premises."

The 2nd source is a Financial Times London article. "In Singapore, it is a political choice designed to reduce dependence on supplies from neighbouring Malaysia - and accounts for less than 1 per cent of water consumed."

The third source is a 2007 publication from a group at the Uni of Queensland (who I understand are in favour of recycling sewage water for drinking - but see their excellent summary of other places that use recycled water). They give Singapore as an example and say “small portion” into reservoir; page 30). This group also has figures and comments on the very high-energy costs of this reverse osmosis proposal (see page 19).

Saturday, May 19, 2007

How much do we recycle?

Australian towns and cities have been developing water recycling schemes for a couple of decades now. The pressure to do so initially came in the late 1980s with the establishment of the various state-based Environmental Protection Authorities (EPAs).

The EPAs set limits and increasingly strict quality criteria for wastes that could be discharged to waterways. This had a considerable effect in causing many inland sewage treatment plants to be upgraded and/or find alternative means for disposing of effluents. Among the most common solutions was to begin to use the treated effluent to irrigate the local airport, golf course or timber plantation. By the late 1990’s, Australians were reusing around 7 % of our treated municipal effluents.

However, in the current decade the major impetus for water recycling has changed significantly. The last six years has been one of the most sustained dry periods across Australia since records began. The pressure for water managers has shifted from a need to dispose of used water to a more urgent need to find new water sources. What was previously considered to be ‘waste water’ has never before looked like such an intrinsically valuable resource.

The aim of most developing Australian water recycling schemes is now to treat and use recycled water in such a manner as to either directly supplement potable water supplies or to replace the use of potable supplies for some specific applications. This additional pressure has brought the national water recycling average up to around 12 % during 2005/06. And as regular readers would know, this growth is not about to slow anytime soon.

I got this ‘12 %’ from the National Performance Report 2005/06 released this week by the National Water Commission and the Water Services Association of Australia. There are two parts of the report, -one covering the major urban water utilities (Sydney Water, Actew, NT Power & Water, Brisbane Water, Water Corporation, etc), and the other covering the non-major urban water utilities (Kempsey Shire Council, etc).

One very clear trend is that the little guys are generally much better water recyclers than the big guys. An average of 9% was recycled by the major utilities (total volume recycled was 125,000 ML), while 23 % was recycled by the non-major utilities (total volume recycled was 42,000 ML).

The reason for the discrepancy is clearly that it is easier for the smaller towns and cities to recycle the relatively smaller volumes of effluent that they produce compared to the much larger cities. In many cases a decent sized golf course or plantation can use a significant proportion of what is produced and commonly only secondary or tertiary treatment levels are required.

For large cities to recycle significant proportions of their effluent, they will commonly need to consider industrial, horticultural, or household reuse where increased levels of treatment and management are generally necessary.

So who are the real individual water recycling champions?

The National Performance Report indicates that there are five utilities that recycle at least 75% of their treated effluents. These are Dubbo City Council (NSW), Western Water (VIC), East Gippsland Water (VIC), Goulburn-Murray Water (VIC), and Wide Bay Water (QLD).

However, the proportion recycled doesn’t give any indication of whether the water was recycled for a high-value application or a low-value application. Furthermore, it doesn’t indicate whether any potable water was saved by having its use substituted by the recycled water.

While the data appear to be a bit more sketchy, the National Performance Report identifies 5 utilities where recycled water contributes to at least a 10% savings of the potable water supply. These are Bega Valley Shire (NSW), Orange City Council (NSW), South East Water (VIC), Western Water (VIC), Power & Water (Alice Springs, NT).

So it seems that on these two combined (somewhat arbitrary) measures, Western Water appears to be the 2005/06 water recycling gold medallist. We’ll have to take a closer look at exactly what they’re doing some time.

Tuesday, May 15, 2007

A second seawater desal plant for WA

The West Australian Government today announced plans to build a second seawater desalination plant, -this time 155 kilometres south of Perth at an estimated cost of $1 billion. The following article from The Australian has the currently available details.

WA to build $1bn desalination plant

Paige Taylor & Amanda O'Brien
The Australian
May 15, 2007

WESTERN Australia's next major water source will be a second desalination plant costing almost $1 billion.

Premier Alan Carpenter cited environmental concerns and climate change today when he announced that he had shelved the Water Corporation's plans to tap the massive Yarragadee aquifer in the state's southwest.

Instead, Mr Carpenter said a $955 desalination plant will be built at Binningup 155km south of Perth and would be powered by renewable energy, possibly geothermal energy.

It would provide 45 gigalitres of water a year, the same as the present desalination plant opened this year at Cockburn Sound, Kwinana, 41km south of Perth.

The state's water supply presently includes 13 per cent recycled water and 17 per cent desalinated water. The second plant, to be completed within four years, would bring the amount of the state's water supply from desalinated water to one third.

Premier Alan Carpenter said the desalination plant was a more expensive option that tapping the aquifer, which was estimated to cost about $700 million, but it was climate independent.

“We can no longer rely on traditional, seasonal climate patterns and rainfall,' he said.

“Seawater desalination is clearly the best long-term feasible and practical option for our State, along with more recycling initiatives.”

The Yarragadee option has been controversial and State opposition leader Paul Omodei was delighted at the decision to take it off the agenda.

He cautiously welcomed news of the second desalination plant.

“Any decision that will stop the Government taking water from the southern Yarragadee is a good decision and we will take some credit for that, he said.

The Liberal Party and the community of the south west have long been arguing that the southern Yarragadee should be left for the people of the South West.

Mr Omodei said the environmental impacts of the second desalination plant would be examined closely.

He said more attention must also be paid to recycling and said the controversial Kimberley water pipeline to bring water from the north of the state also remained an option in the longer term.

The director of the WA Conservation Council, Chris Tallentine, also welcomed the decision but warned the desalination plant would be closely scrutinised. He said conservationists across the state had worked hard to stop the Yarragadee project which posed very real risks to the environment.

Potable reuse for Melbourne?

Professor John Langford is the Director of the Melbourne Water Research Centre at the University of Melbourne. An article in The Australian today reports Prof Langford predicting that Melbourne may expect to institute an indirect potable water recycling scheme sometime down the track...

Water reform to suit location
The Australian
By Matthew Warren
May 15, 2007

BY the end of the next decade, Sydney could expect to have at least one desalination plant operating, while Melbourne residents would be drinking recycled sewage, a water expert predicted yesterday.

Speaking at the Future Summit, Uniwater director John Langford said the rise of recycling and desalination was an inevitable diversification of urban water supply.

"We need a diverse portfolio," Professor Langford said. "We can no longer rely on rain-fed systems, and the modelling for southeastern Australia is that it is going to get drier. Desalination and indirect potable (recycling) are the only sources that can achieve that."

Although desalination was more cost-effective in Sydney, Melbourne's geography heavily favoured the introduction of indirect recycling of sewage into dams and streams.

As a result, Professor Langford said it would be timely to begin an education and information process for the community, to ensure a smooth transition and to avoid the risk of community backlash.

"Each solution has got to be tailor-made for the city," he said.

Professor Langford said this type of major infrastructure was part of the solution, but some of the most important reforms were "quite boring", such as reforms to urban water pricing, tighter reporting and accounting and improved understanding of the ecology.

Monday, May 07, 2007

Western Corridor Recycled Water Project

It’s about time we took a close look at the Western Corridor Recycled Water Project (WCRWP) currently undergoing development in South East Queensland. The last time we discussed it was back in July last year when it was little more than a twinkle in the eye of Premier Peter Beattie.

Since then, the scheme has been undergoing construction at apparently record pace. Deputy Premier Anna Bligh said last week that “more than 750 workers are now on sites at both ends of the 200km project and at the three other sites in the middle... It would normally take five to seven years and we will deliver in less than two and a half.”

The best overview of what these 750 men and women are working on is available from the map below which I borrowed from the WCRWP website. You can click on the map to see a larger image, or you could click here to go to a somewhat interactive version.

The interactive version is worth taking a look at since it allows you to click on each of the “sheet 1”, “sheet 2” areas to see an annotated areal photograph of that area.

The WCRWP will make use of the vast majority of treated municipal effluent (treated sewage) which is currently being discharged into Moreton Bay via the Brisbane River. This water will undergo advanced water treatment processes to prepare it to a quality that is suitable as a potable water source.

Much of the advanced-treated water will be used to supply cooling water to power stations and it is possible that some of it may be used for agricultural purposes. Of course, the controversial aspect of the project is that the remaining available water will be used to recharge one of Brisbane’s main drinking water reservoirs, -either Wivenhoe or Somerset.

The project is being built in two stages (like me, you might be able to count three, but I’ll stick with the official version so as not to confuse things!):

Stage 1A: An advanced water treatment plant at Bundamba (see sheet 13) will treat water from existing sewage treatment plants at Bundamba (sheet 13) and Goodna (sheet 11) to supply Swanbank power station (just south of sheets 12 & 13) by August 2007.

Stage 1B: The advanced water treatment plant at Bundamba (sheet 13) will be expanded to incorporate additional volumes of water from the sewage treatment plants at Oxley (sheet 10) and Wacol (sheet 11). A pipeline will then link to Caboonbah (sheet 24) for off-take to Tarong power station (further north-west). This stage is scheduled for completion in June 2008.

Stage 2: Two new advanced water treatment plants to be constructed alongside existing sewage treatment plants at Luggage Point (sheet 1) and Gibson Island (sheet 2) will provide larger volumes of recycled water for delivery to Wivenhoe or Somerset Dam by the end of 2008.

The Commonwealth Government has announced that it would support the $1.7 billion project with the contribution of $408 million. This funding is to be provided as a Water Smart Australia (WSA) Grant which are assessed and awarded through the National Water Commission. The Queensland Government’s application for this WSA funding is available from here and is a further useful source of information regarding the project details.

It was from that application that I found (and you can find) the schematic diagram below, giving an overview of the treatment scheme that is intended for the three advanced treatment plants:

We’ve discussed the key treatment processes of reverse osmosis (RO) and advanced oxidation (UV/H2O2) on this site previously. The microfiltration/ultrafiltration (MF/UF) and RO process will generate several waste-streams, which must be properly managed. The RO concentrate stream will be treated with chemical coagulation and sedimentation for phosphorus removal and with a denitrification filter with methanol addition for biological nitrogen removal. The treated waste-streams from Luggage Point and Gibson Island are proposed to be discharged to the Brisbane River, where they will be diluted and dispersed into Moreton Bay. The Draft Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) indicates that these discharges will be about adjacent to the existing outfalls and constitute around 15 % of their current flow. The WSA grant application indicates that the waste-stream from the Bundamba plant would either be discharged to the Bremmer River or else piped to the Brisbane River.

The WSA application clearly describes how the total influx of the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus into the Bremmer and Brisbane Rivers will be significantly reduced. However, it is also important to remember that the total flow of water will be reduced (its got to come from somewhere!). Nonetheless, Figures 6-9 in the WSA application indicate that reductions in nutrient concentration are indeed expected, -not just reductions in total load.

The question of how much water the WCRWP will produce is an interesting and controversial one. The WSA application (submitted in January) indicated that the scheme would provide around 210 megalitres of water per day. However, that was before the introduction of Level 5 water restrictions and an article from the Brisbane Times reports that this has now been revised down to only 142 megalitres while such restrictions are in place.

The WCRWP is a partnership between the Queensland Government, Brisbane City Council, Ipswich City Council and the Southern Regional Water Pipeline Alliance. The operation of the scheme will be undertaken by Veolia Water Australia under a long-term contract with the Queensland Government.

Certainly the WCRWP is a mega-project and we’ve only just skimmed the surface of what is involved. However, my hope is that this will provide a useful starting point to initiate further discussion.

By the way, I do receive comments (by email) that people leave on old posts and I’m always happy to resume the discussion. So even if you’ve just dropped in long after this post was posted, feel free to pick up wherever we’ve left off.

Saturday, May 05, 2007

What do people want to know?

This blog has been around now for almost a year (its our first birthday on May 16!). One of the interesting things for me has been observing the stats regarding how people arrived here. During the last 12 months we’ve had around 2500 find us via a search engine query, -predominantly Google [since writing this, I’ve realised that those 2500 only go back to February 2007].

I thought I would share with you the list of search terms that have landed people here. They provide quite some insight to the issues which interest or concern people. I am particularly interested in the search terms that begin with ‘how’, ‘what’, and ‘why’. But there are many other interesting things that people are clearly keen to know more about.

Oh, and if you look closely, you’ll find some crackers!

17 occurrences:
stuart khan

9 occurrences:
luggage point brisbane

8 occurrences:
stuart khan blog

7 occurrences:
liverpool ashfield pipeline
water recycling in australia

6 occurrences:
indirect potable recycling
indirect potable reuse

5 occurrences:
liverpool to ashfield pipeline

4 occurrences:
canberra potable reuse scheme
desalination and recycling to boost australian water supplies.
dihydrogen monoxide
google earth map of bundamba qld au
'scaremongering' and 'intellectually dishonest'
western sydney recycled water initiative

3 occurrences:
desalanisation of water
desalanisation plant
dihydrogen oxide
how dihydrogen monoxide is recycled
recycled sewage diagram
sydney water pipeline
tim flanerry
tim flannery australian of the year
water pipeline australia

2 occurrences:
"snow manners"
anna hurlimann
ashfield to liverpool pipeline
assays about recycling in australia
australia ozone problem
australian recycled water legislation
australian theory on reused water
collignon khan
consequences of desalination
dangerous chemical compounds
desalanisation plants
desalination in australia arguments
desalination plant planned for melbourne
desalination vs recycled water survey
desilation plant
desilation plants
does berlin germany drink recycled sewerage
electricity production australia
estrogens water environment
evidence that recycle water is harmful
fo draw solution
freundlich capacity
freundlich capacity factor
goulburn dam level
issues regarding seawater desalination in perth
issues regarding water recycling in perth
kwinana sewer recycling
law of contagion
leederville aquifer
liverpool ashfield
membrane rejection
nathan zohner
negative effects of recycling water
opinion pieces on recycled water
peter collignon article about recycled water
peter collignon water
peter debnam policy on water recycling
prairie waters project aurora
public opinion on water recycling in nsw australia
quotes from people against recycled water
recycle waste water into drinking water(perth)
recycling diagram
recycling in australia
recycling sewage water australian facts
recycling sewerage water facts
recycling water in act australia
removal of the natural hormone...filtration and reverse osmosis
ro membrane life span
sewer mining perth
stewart kahn
stuart kahn
stuart khan and david roser
sydney recycled water booklet
sydney zoo water recycling
the truth about dhmo
think before you agree to drink
toowoomba water recycling costs
virginia pipeline
washington dc potable recycled water
water quality sydney
water recycling
water recycling australia
water recycling canberra professor
water recycling debate
water recycling debate canberra
water recycling in australia 2007
water reuse - the yuck factor
why shouldn't the yarragadee water plan occur
yuck factor water recycling

1 occurrence:
"australia sewer"
"brisbane liberal"
"chlorine dioxide" oxidize "ro membranes"
"chlorine dioxide" reverse osmosis membrane
"closed loop" water australia
"consequences of desalination"
"damien townend"
"darling downs cotton growers"
"desalination plant" "australia" "facts"
"di thorley" may 2007
"direct potable reuse" and standards
"dudziak" "bodzek"
"georges river" pipeline
"gravity assisted" dihydrogen monoxide
"health risk"water recycling schemes"
"indirect potable recycling" sydney
"indirect potable reuse scheme"
"indirect potable"
"lake ray" australia
"latrobe valley" recycled water
"latrobe valley" water pipeline recycled power
"limestone filters" "water"
"luggage point" outfall map
"luggage point" pipe wivenhoe
"luggage point" wastewater brisbane
"main roads" queensland
"morris iemma" recycled poo
"mt crosby" water treatment plant description
"municipal water cycle"
"nathan zohner "
"opportunity cost" water sydney
"potable water recyling"
"power stations pacific"
"prospect reservoir" debnam
"recycled sewage" advantages and disadvantages
"recycled sewerage"
"recycled water"
"recycled water" and australia pricing
"reverse osmosis"
"reverse osmosis" membrane rejection recycling
"services sydney" van der
"sewer mine"
"sithe energies" "gibson island"
"snow manners" and "toowoomba city council"
"stuart kahn" unsw water
"stuart khan"
"stuart khan" "david roser"
"stuart khan" and "david roser"
"sydney catchment authority"
"sydney water" and "sydney services"
"think before you agree to drink" brisbane
"tim flannery" "australian of year"
"tim flannery" dams
"tim flannery" said
"tim flannery" water
"triple bottom line analysis"
"water journal" australia
"western sydney recycled water initiative" agriculture
"yarramundi bridge" opened
% rejection terminology in nanofiltration
[potable recycled water health risks]
10 facts about recycling sewag... facts about desalinated water
100 facts about recycled water
125 500 desal sydney
2 billion dollars a year to recycle sydney's water
2006 tourism sustainable water recycling practices
2007 queensland water pipe 1 billion plan
500ml day malabar 456
a catchy slogan to recycling
a diagram showing how water is...ed in a typical gippsland home
a more appropriate
a picture of molecules passing...h a semi pa picture of osmosis
a simple structural diagram for acetylsalicylic acid
accurate facts on recycling
acetylsalicylic acid chemical structure polarity
acetylsalicylic acid structural diagram
acetylsalicylic drewes
acidity constant ndma
actew recycle sewage cotter
actew recycled sewerage
actew water recycling canberra
activate carbon picture
activated carbon and its role in water treatment
adelaide bolivar stp
adelaide water runout
advanced wastewater treatment plant energy luggage point
advanced water recyling
advantage and disadvantage recycled water
advantages and disadvantages of recycled water
advantages and disadvantages of recycling vs desalination
advantages and disadvantages of wivenhoe dam
advantages for desalination on the gold coast
advantages for having a desalination plant in the gold coast
advantages of "recycled sewage water"
advantages of recycling water over desalinated water'
advantages of recycling water over desalination
advantages of water recycling in australia
advantages of water recycling in sydney
advantages water recycling sydney
against australia recycling water
agreculture australia
air tio2 disinfection paints clinics
alternative methods to recycling sewage water in sydney
analytical response on recycled water
anna bligh brackish water
anti recycled water booklet
anti recycled water queensland
anti recycled water slogans
anti urban water recycling
anti-recycling sewerage water
anti-water recycling australia
any university around the world that has water recycling
aop geosmin
aop uv organic
aquafin belgium
aquifer recharge desalination
aquifer recharge diagram
aquifer recharge perth indirect potable
archive collapsed
are australians good recyclers...p but not at the bottom either
areas received recycled water in australia
argument about recycling of sewage water in australia
argument about water problem in australia
argument for drinking recycled water in queensland
argument of the solution of wa...cling waste water in australia
argument sewage in australia
arguments about australian drinking sewage water.
arguments against australians drinking recycled water
arguments against drinking recycled sewage water
arguments against recycling sewage water
arguments against recycling water
arguments against water recycling in australia
arguments desalination plan
arguments for a desalination plant in australia
arguments for desalination
arguments for recycled water consumption
arguments for recycled water sydney
arguments for recycling water australia
arguments for water recycling in australia
arguments in favour of recycled water
arguments in favour recycled water
arguments on drinking recycled waste water in australia
arguments on recycled water being for it
arguments on recycled water fo...state of victoria in australia
arguments on recycled water in australia
arguments over water in australia
arguments supporting use of recycled water
artesion toilets
artesion water
article of water recycling australia 2007
articles on how recycling sewa...ater can help sydney's drought
articles on water recycling - the age - february 2007
ashfield sydney water recycling
aurora prairie waters project
aussie polls recycled wastewater
aussie products and phthalates
austra simple man and woman
australia 2008 water recycle
australia alternatives to using recycled waste water
australia bisphenol a
australia compared to europe recycling water
australia desalination plans of interesting facts
australia desalination plants ...king water scientific argument
australia does not need to rec... water, we need to conserve it
australia drink wastewater
australia drinking treated water
australia drought newater
australia elections, desalination
australia endocrine disruption 2007
australia labour party proposals to water crisis
australia lamp malcolm turnbull
australia membrane
australia membrane solutions
australia nsw water
australia ozone distribution
australia potable water crisis
australia proposes to recycle ...te water for human consumption
australia recycle numbers
australia recycling polls
australia recycling water important
australia rejecting water recycle
australia reuse water poll
australia sewage drink nsw
australia sewage water recycling
australia should not drink recycled water debate
australia should recycle its water for human consumption
australia toilet water recycle
australia use recycling water
australia wastewater reclamation ro membranes
australia water fact campaign
australia water recycle plan
australia water recycling
australia water recycling law bill
australia water recycling schemes
australia water recycling the present
australia water sewer
australia water treatment discharge incident
australia water uninhabitable
australia water waste in a day
australia what does recycle mean
australia, noose
australia?recycled water present
australian case study disruption to nutrient recycling
australian cities affected by drought names
australian cities considering desalination
australian debate topics... recycling sewerage water in qld
australian domestic water restrictions
australian electricity production methods
australian federal gov stance recycled water
australian federal government proposes recycled water
australian government concerned with water management
australian government desalination water policy
australian inland cities
australian nsw government water and sewage infrastructure
australian perceptions, recycled water
australian recycled water diagram
australian recycled water facts
australian sewage recycling
australian sewer problem
australian stp zero 2007
australian toilet water recycle common
australian town may recycle sewage
australian uv disinfection systems
australian voters water recycling
australian water diagram
australian water pipelines
australian water recycling plan
australian water restriction
australian water supply uninhabitable
australians using recycled water
australia's advantages of water recycling
australia's contaminated water
australia's desalanisation plant 2006
australias drought (desalanisation)
australia's drought and water recycling
australias plan for desalination plants
australia's recycling facts
australia's water recycling process
australien ozone problem
availability of water and electricity in belgium
average cost of ozone disinfection
bacteria deactivated reactivated
bad cause for recycling wastewater
bad effects of recycling
bad effects recycling as in the world
bad recycled sewage drinking water ill sick
bad things about recycled water in australia
bad things about water recycling
bad thoughts towards water recycling
barnwell park massey park
baroon pocket dam sewerage
baroon pocket dam wall
bcc wastewater treatment plant fairfield
beattie divert river
beattie recycled water "thames water"
beattie reuse water
beenleigh community comment
beenyup reverse osmosis groundwater replenishment project
belgian intermunicipal water company of the veurne region
belgium drink water facts
benefit of recycle water dwindling water supply
benefits of water recycling in australia
best title of a scientific paper about reverse osmosis
biggest water pipeline project
bill heffernan
billion western corridor recycled water
binney toowoomba
biocycle water treatment perth
biofilm growing through ro membrane
biofouling bacteria mechanisms
biofouling in ro
biofouling membranes
biofouling uv
blog australia water
blog australian plants
blog spot water kahn
blog water australia
blogs on water australia
blogspot waterrecycling
blue water sydney desal
boating warragamba
bodzek, m.; dudziak, m. 2005
bolivar virginia pipeline reuse water cost 2007
bolivar water virginia
bore water point nepean
bore water versus recycled water
bore water versus tap water for gardens
boundary creek pathogen western sydney
brackish water groundwater australia
brackish water what is safe fo plants & humans
brent haddad presentation contamination water
brisbane indirect potable reuse
brisbane ion exchange recycled water
brisbane is going to run out of water by 2008
brisbane luggage point wastewater
brisbane pipeline water recycling
brisbane recycled water booklet
brisbane recycled water brochure blogspot
brisbane seawater
brisbane sewage water recycle
brisbane sewer mining
brisbane wastewater luggage point
brisbane water blog
brisbane water dams
brisbane water distribution network map
brisbane water recycle luggage point
brisbane water recycle pipelines
brisbane water reservoirs
brisbane water treatment point
bromate removal ozone peroxide number
bundamba advanced water treatment plant australia
bundamba membrane
bundamba recycle plant
bundamba water
'bundamba, queensland, australia'
by award-winning u.s. scientist nathan zohner
by cathy alexander canberra times
camellia recycle, veolia
camellia recycling project, veolia
campaigns running to aware australia on the drought
can recycled water be hazard to our health
canada bay council sewer mining
canada bay sewer mining
canberra times stuart khan
canberra water murrumbidgee
canberra water tuesday
cancer water chlorine recycle
carbon adsorber problem liverpool
carbon dihydrogen monoxide dissolves
carbon filtering pharmaceutical from recycled water
carbon used in water treatment
cases against recycled effluent
catchy slogans for saving water
catchy slogans recycling
catchy statements of recycling
central coast water simple diagram
changing effluent into drinking water in australia
charleville water supply australia
cheetahs chromosomes
chemical contaminants in recycled sewerage water
chemical exposure "nsw central coast"
chemical removal reverse osmosis
chemical solutions 2ho
chemical treatment of warragamba dam
children and recycling and australia
chloramines as disinfectants, singapore 2006
chlorine cancer australia
chlorine dioxide reverse osmosis disinfection
chlorine disinfection membrane
chris bellona
city luggage point
city of aurora colorado prairie waters
city of aurora prairie waters water treatment plant
city of melbourne sewer mining
city water chemical removal
clofibric acid log kow
coal seam gas australia issue law
collignon sewage
collignon, peter professor, sc...australian national university
collingnon water
colorado dam construction ongoing debate 2006-7
colorado indirect potable reuse
comments about people against recycling
common endocrine-disrupting chemicals found in singapore water
community acceptance recycled water
community perceptions water treatment
compare water recycling countries
comparison of risk evaluation ...desalination and recycle water
completed desalanisation plants
concern on water recycling in sydney
conference on recycling in australia
consequences from desalination
controversial views on water recycling
controversy construction rever... provide drinking water sydney
cost analysis of dual reticulation in homes
cost benefit analysis indirect potable reuse
cost benefit recycled water toowoomba
cost desal wavepower
cost of desalanisation plant
cost of dual pipe scheme
cost of major water recycling plants
cost of pilot plant for water recycling
cost of producing 1 litre of desalinated water in australia
cost of recycling wastewater, seawater
cost of recycling water sydney
cost of recycling water used for human consumption
cost of setting up recycling water
cost of treating bore water
cost of water recycling plant toowoomba
cost per megalitre recycling projects
cost recycling sewage
cost recycling water sydney
cost savings of indirect potable reuse
cost to install a water recycling plant in sydney
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costs of recyling compared with desalination water
councilor jane prentice (brisbane)
countries that have recycled sewerage water
countries using recycled water australia
countries using recycled water toowoomba reverse osmosis
courier mail the mt crosby weir water situation
cressbrook dam built
current flow penrith weir
current water recycling initiatives in australia
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daily telegraph article on the nepean river
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dam level goulburn
dam wall goulburn
dam water pricing versus recycled water
dams built for toowoomba water restrictions
dams water retention melting offset
dangers of reverse osmosis not true
dangers of technology and water recycling
davide bixio
davies, a. 2007, 'debnam's wat...ning herald, 16 february 2007.
deaths due to recycled water
deaths from reclaimed drinking water dangers
debate recycled water is not safe
debate should southeast qld pump recycled water into its dams
debate topics for science ex water recycling
debates about recycled water is a bad idea
debating against usage of recycled water into dams
debating topic water recycling
debating topic: recycling effluent to drink
debnam promises election
debnam recycled sewage treatment
define waterborne pollutants australia
defined new water is sewage water made potable by ro
degradation and by-product for...uring uv and uv/h2o2 treatment
desal & perth
desal diagram
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details list of dangerous used in chemical industries
determine membrane mwco
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dhmo chemical make up
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diagram of australia
diagram of beatties pipe plan
diagram of brisbane dams now
diagram of drought in australia 2007
diagram of mount crosby water treatment plant
diagram of recycle
diagram of recycling in wales
diagram of recycling sewage water process
diagram of sea water ro plant
diagram of size exclusion pores
diagram of the source of water
diagram of water cycle perth
diagram perth water pipeline
diagram warragamba dam
diagrams drought in australia 2007
diagrams of queenslands water crisis
diagrams of recycled sewage water
diagrams on water crisis in australia
diethyl phthalate in bottled water
difference between recycled and reclaimed water
difference between water recycling and desalination
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dihydrogen monoxide (dhmo) another name
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dihydrogen monoxide is an example of a nonpolar molecule
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dirty recycled water is bad
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disagreements purified water in qld
discuss how water is managed i...ed solutions to these problems
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disinfecting water h2o2 3%
disposal seawater concentrate
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does berlin and sewerage to the drinking supplies
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effect of salicylic acid on pl...earch papers of year 2007 only
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environmental estrogens "2006"
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eraring power station water recycling
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evidence that water recycling is harmful
evidence that water reuse is harmful to health
evidences of health hazards of...(traces of drugs and the pill)
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facts about desalinated water in australia
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flow rates hawkesbury river
forms of water recycling melbourne
free essays on recycling sewage water in australia
friday february 16 daily telegraph peter debnam
from toilet to tap toowoomba debate
funny saying on effluent and water recycling
gac contact time removal of endocrine disruptors
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gatton artesian bore
germicidal lamps
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golf courses using ozone in the irrigation water supply
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graphic recycled water in australia
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growcom mislead
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'hawkesbury turf farms' .au
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how do nanofiltration work
how do people recycle dihydrogen monoxide
how do reverse osmosis membranes work?
how do they recycle sewage to ...king water how will they do it
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how does a water recycling plant work?
how does aquatic reverse osmosis work
how does desalanisation work
how does recycling effect our health?
how dose taronga zoo the recycle water?
how is recycled water made in singapore diagram
how is seawater being used and abused
how is the government going to recycle sewerage water?
how long does it take to recycle water?
how long will we last on the e...water we have in the hinze dam
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how many litres of water does a swimming poll hold?
how many people get sick from drinking recycled water
how much percent of water does south australia recycle
how much will it cost to build a recycled water plant?
how much will it cost to build...esalination plant in australia
how people have died from dhmo
how things use dihydrogen monoxide
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how to make small desalanisation plant
how to run a successful campaign
how water is stored in australia
how water recycling plants work
how we should manage drought in australia
how we watse are water
how will mr. debnam's solution...lth policies affect consumers?
howard proposed water pipeline
human excrement for energy production australia
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human health risk association and indirect potable reuse
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hunter valley power stations photos
hurlimann reclaimed
hydrogen monoxide petitions
hydrophobicity and polarity size of molecules
hydroxyl radical oxidation organic co2
hydroxyl radical uv water
hydroxyl scavenger in advanced...tion with uv hydrogen peroxide
hypothesis water shortage in australia
iemma cries foul as debnam drinks words - smh
iemma debnam water policy election
iemma pipeline
iemma quotes
iemma state election water management
iemma v debnam - water program
if australia continues to have...ions other then recycled water
images of the perth seawater desalination plant
impediments water recycling australia khan
in eastern health urine should have what sort of taste to it
in strathfield who provides recycling?
indirect potable guidelines
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indirect potable recycling and...salination - a cost comparison
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interesting facts about wivenhoe-for kids
'interesting facts for childre...ling drinking water australia'
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intro about water treatment
introduction for a speech with...ey should drink recycled water
introduction to sewer mining
ipr scheme malabar
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ipr water
is 90% of our water recyclable
is 90% of our water recyclable?
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is water recycling a viable so... to our dwindling water supply
john debnam and recycled sewage
john dowson snow manners
john dowson toowoomba
john howard quotes on water management
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john peterson myers
journal chemical activated carbon used
june marks community recycling
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khan blog recycled water
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kwinana reverse osmosis photo
l. d. nghiem 2006 edcs
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law of contagion rozin
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lead pvc pipe beaudesert
leederville aquifer perth
letters to the editor water recycling 2006
level 5 water restrictions and restaurant rules
limitation sydney water
linda mcpherson ch2m hill
list of london places around the world that use recycled water
liverpool "drinking water" chlorine
liverpool ashfield pipe
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mass spectrometry recycled water results
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mechanism reverse osmosis membrane filtration
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mississippi river's planned ipu
molecular diagram of aspirin
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mother teresa on recycling
mt crosby treatment station - water treatment process
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nattai elevation
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negative effects of recycling water in australia
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nicholas ashbolt ohio 2007
no recycle water drink dangerous bad
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nuwater revenue projection
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okay uv
old water dangerous?
opinion piece the benefits of ...nking water the canberra times
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oxidation of protozoa, ozone
ozone disinfectant production australia
ozone in drinking standard
ozone in potable water reacting with chlorine
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palatable vs potable
paper published about dose res...relationship of fishes in 2006
parks at luggage point
parsons brinckerhoff toowoomba wastewater
partially treated sewage into olinda creek
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picture of water flowing into creeks and dam
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process flow diagram of aspirin
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profile lyle shelton
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proposed pipeline in penrith river for storm water reuse
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provide a third of sydney's water regardless of rainfall
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radcliffe, water recycling in australia
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